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of American Physicians and Surgeons, Inc.
A Voice for Private Physicians Since 1943
Omnia pro aegroto
Volume 50, No. 4 April 1994
Who Sits at the Clintons' Table, and Who Picks Up the
When AAPS filed a lawsuit against the secret operations of
the President's Task Force on Health Care Reform, in February,
1993, the issue appeared to be a small legal point: Was this
task force required to jump through the hoops set up by the
Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA)?
There was a resounding lack of interest at the AMA. Despite
public complaints about exclusion, the AMA had a seat at the
table. AMA representatives (e.g. at a meeting of the ASPRS)
spoke about their direct access to Ira Magaziner.
One possible response by the White House would have been
simply to comply with the law: publish meeting notices in the
Federal Register, make minutes accessible to all willing
to surmount the usual bureaucratic hurdles, and wait for public
interest to die down.
Instead, Bernard Nussbaum, former chief Counsel to the
President, asserted that the law did not apply to the Health Care
Task Force and undertook an aggressive defense of the secret war
room. (Nussbaum resigned in March, 1994, in the wake of
inquiries about the Whitewater affair, including the removal of
files from the office of the late Vincent Foster, Deputy Counsel
to the President. Foster was found dead at Fort Marcy last July,
shortly after the filing of certain briefs concerning the Health
Care Task Force.)
The White House has continued to stonewall, despite a
sharply worded order from Judge Royce Lamberth (see AAPS
News Dec 1993). Four boxes of documents were released, with
a request for an extension of time. AAPS objected to the
extension, and the judge has not yet ruled on it.
The Task Force was hastily disbanded. Nevertheless, its
demise did not prevent an excruciatingly detailed 1,342-page
reform proposal from being submitted to Congress, albeit a little
behind schedule. And the questions remain: who is
behind the health-care reform fever, whether related to the
Task Force or not? And what did the Task Force have to hide?
Task Force documents (such as ethics forms, payroll records,
and agendas) might or might not be revealing. Some may have
disappeared into the reputedly voracious papershredders at the
White House or the Rose Law Firm. Some are under a court
protective order and for the present equally inaccessible.
However, these documents are not really needed to answer the
questions. A search of public archives, under the direction of
AAPS legal counsel, may suffice.
Some answers suggest themselves simply from a reading of the
so-called Health Security Act. In principle and semantics, it
strongly resembles proposals put forth in 1938 by Consumers Union
and in the 1970s by the Marxist-oriented Institute for Policy
Studies, for example, the Community Health Alternative Project
drafted in coordination with Rep. Ron Dellums (D-CA) (Human
Events 2/25/94). It also strongly resembles programs enacted
in the ``laboratories of democracy,'' states including Hawaii,
Washington, Minnesota, and Kentucky. All provide a central role
for governmental or government-controlled or -favored entities.
Leftist schemes tend to enjoy a presumption of good
intentions and ``public interest,'' as opposed to ``special''
(private) interests. But could their proponents possibly be
tainted by human motives for self-aggrandizement and profit? And
should they be immune from public oversight under the FACA, which
was designed to guard against undue influence from special
``Health-care reform'' involves a trillion dollars. It is
literally where the money is. Sutton's Law applies.
Billions of dollars have already changed hands. Between
January and September, 1993, investors in 23 pharmaceutical
stocks lost $62 billion. The gains from short positions are
estimated at $250 million. There is a strong correlation between
stock prices and White House political rhetoric (Catalyst
Institute Research Report, November, 1993).
Others that stand to gain from managing Clinton-style reform
are the Big Five commercial insurers (Aetna, Prudential, Cigna,
Travelers, Met Life), which actively promote managed competition
in lobbying and magazine advertisements (``Betting the Farm on
Managed Care,'' NY Times 6/27/93).
Financial power houses not listed on the stock exchange
probably play the pivotal role. Philanthropic foundations give
away billions of dollars every year, mostly to promote agendas
that list sharply leftward (Stanley Rothman, Wall St J,
AAPS has received calls from numerous sources-including a
medical student and a physician's wife-concerning the role of the
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (worth $4 billion) and the Kaiser
Family Foundation (not coincidentally related to Kaiser-
Permanente, citadel of managed care and one of two controllers of
medicine in Hawaii). Research studies that not coincidentally
support governmental control and managed care are heavily funded
by these foundations; your medical society and medical college
may be a beneficiary.
The grants have strings attached. An RWJ grant to the state
of Minnesota was contingent upon passage of a Clinton-like Plan
(and was cancelled when the governor vetoed the legislation). But
the influence of the tax-exempt foundations extends still
further. A number of Task Force members, including Congressional
staff members, were on the RWJ payroll. If Clinton-style reform
passes, RWJ personnel will be positioned to control billions of
dollars and the very lives of American citizens. Could
foundations be creating a shadow government, immune from public
AAPS lawyers believe that they have found the answers to
many of these questions. They will move in court by the end of
Physicians, AAFP Take Opposite Sides on Reform
President Clinton is claiming the support of all 300,000
physicians who belong to organizations that have endorsed his
Health Security Act, including the American Academy of Family
Physicians (AAFP). Yet 71% of family physicians are opposed to
the Plan, while 12% (ñ3%) favor it and 15% are undecided,
according to a recent informal survey by AAPS.
AAPS sent surveys to 5000 randomly selected family
physicians nationwide; about 400 responded.
Given a list of adjectives to describe the plan, 9.5%
checked ``cost-saving,'' 4.7% ``quality-enhancing,'' 29%
``access-expanding,'' 11% ``generous,'' 82% ``bureaucratic,'' 63%
``socialist,'' 54% ``destructive,'' and 34% ``unconstitutional.''
Fourteen respondents suggested an additional description that was
positive or neutral in tone, and sixty contributed a negative
description, e.g. ``tyrannical,'' ``deceitful,'' ``unethical,''
and ``self-aggrandizing for bureaucrats.''
In response to the question, ``If the Clinton Plan is
enacted, what will you do?'' only 43% checked the answer ``sign
up with the Plan, submit to the system, and try to make the best
of it.'' Almost as many (38%) said they would ``work to have the
Plan repealed,'' and 21% said they would ``retire or change my
occupation.'' About 13% said they would ``refuse to participate
and attempt to practice privately.'' (More than one response was
A large majority of respondents were opposed to specific
provisions found in the Clinton Plan and various alternate
proposals. An employer mandate is opposed by 65%. About 65%
would object to diverting funds from sickness care to school-
based clinics and other social projects. More than 75% oppose a
lottery for selecting enrollees for oversubscribed plans; 71%
oppose requiring electronic data submission for all clinical
encounters; and 61% oppose forcing everyone to pay for a standard
The majority of respondents (55%) favor Medical Savings
Accounts. Only 13% are opposed to this concept; 30% are
Here is a sampling of open-ended comments:
``I feel betrayed by the AAFP.''
``This issue is politically inspired to eliminate the middle
class. If they really wanted to make health care available, all
that would be necessary is to allow tax deductions for giving
free care to those in need.''
``AAFP never polled its grass-roots members. I am undecided
about continuing my membership as a founding member.'' [About 8%
said they had been polled by AAFP.]
``This plan would be the end of true democracy.''
Washington State and ``Clinton-Heavy''
Physicians also find themselves at odds with the Washington
State Medical Association, which endorsed that state's version of
the Clinton model (enacted last year but not yet implemented).
Seven members of the state chapter of AAPS sent questionnaires to
all physicians in their counties; 1,591 (30%) responded. Neal
Shonnard, MD, of Puyallup, and Estelle Yamaki, MD, of Federal
Way, presented the findings at the regional meeting of AAPS held
in Bellevue on Feb 18.
The poll showed that 62% of physicians do not support the
government-controlled, managed-care reforms of the 1993 Health
Services Act. The Act will make fee-for-service medicine illegal
after July, 1995.
Moreover, 72% believe that these reforms will have a
negative effect on the quality of care, including 18% of those
who agree with the reform. Also, 59% believe that the new system
will not control costs, and 71% believe that it will not permit
patients to choose their own physician.
Almost one quarter of respondents are thinking of a career
change, early retirement, or moving out of state.
According to Dr. Yamaki, the survey reflects a ``growing
sense of frustration and hopelessness....[M]any physicians feel
that the future of medicine is out of their control and in the
hands of politicians, lawyers, and MBAs.'' She also noted that
many physicians will resign from the WSMA.
Physicians are not the only ones who feel excluded from the
decision-making. Also speaking at the Bellevue meeting, Rep.
Phil Dyer, ranking minority member of the Health Care Committee
of the Washington legislature, stated that the Act was not
written in the state, but arrived by FAX bearing the telephone
number of the Clinton Health Care Task Force.
The employer mandate, Dyer stated, would not lead
to universal access, but would lead to de facto
discrimination against employees with dependents. The community
rating requirement would probably increase premiums by 17 to 25%.
It is claimed, based on Hawaii's experience, that small business
would not be devastated.
``All we need to do,'' Dyer said, ``is to build a 5,000 mile
salt-water moat around the State of Washington.''
Hawaiian Casualties: Medicine and Free Speech
``Fear of retribution is the glue that holds the system
together,'' writes a Hawaii physician-anonymously-in the Feb 15
issue of Postgraduate Medicine. Physicians are held
hostage by the state's two major payers.
Yes, there are report cards in Hawaii; Blue Cross/Blue
Shield controls the data bases and fills out the reports on
itself. There are practice guidelines; diabetics may receive
insulin when they spill sugar in their urine. And yes, there are
monopoly price controls. It is cheaper and faster to fly a
patient to San Francisco for an MRI (including airfare and a
hotel stay) than to have one done in Honolulu.
AAPS Membership Drive Underway
Before the end of March, every office-based physician in the
US should receive at least one application to join AAPS.
The majority of physicians do not know there is a national
organization fighting for the preservation of our profession and
our freedom. If you receive an extra application form, please ask
a colleague to join us.
This campaign is made possible by the generous donations of
our members. If we don't write you an individual thank-you
letter, it is because we are too busy packing New Member Kits.
Please accept our heartfelt appreciation.
AAPS Distributes 50,000 Copies of Patient
A second printing of the abridged Patient Power is
now underway. It is again thanks to the generosity of our
members that we are able to help the Cato Institute capitalize
the print run. The ideas of Medical Savings Accounts, sound
catastrophic insurance, tax equity, and individual responsibility
are finally being widely discussed-because our patients and
associates are asking about them.
Medical Spending Reduced 64%; Coverage Better
Without waiting for Congress to pass any legislation, Golden
Rule Insurance Company decided to offer its own employees a
Medical Savings Account combined with an umbrella insurance
policy to pay 100% of normally covered expenses after $2000 for
an individual or $3000 for a family.
Employees are told that the money in the MSA is their
money. They have many choices. They may take the money with
them if they terminate their employment (and use it to cover
their COBRA premium if they wish). They may spend it for medical
expenses (including dental work and eyeglasses, not covered by
insurance). At the end of the year, they may roll over the
balance to cover future medical expenses, or they may withdraw
it. (Taxes have already been withheld.)
The results: 80% of the employees chose the MSA, which
commenced in May, 1993. On December 31, the employees had
$468,000 left in the accounts. This is ``found money'' to the
employees. Nobody ever got any money back on the group insurance
Medical spending by employees was reduced to 36% of the
The most positive response was from single mothers. They
now take their children to the doctor without worrying about the
deductible. Some said they were going to get a mammogram for the
first time. They had not done it before because of the
``There is nothing in the rubric of managed care that
gives this kind of result. All we did was turn the self-interest
of the employees loose....[t]hey changed the ball game for us
Milton Friedman recently stated that if patients once again
had a financial interest in medical decisions, the cost of
medical care could be reduced to ``something like the 5% of total
consumer spending that it was before the government got into the
``I no longer believe that that is unrealistically
Letter from J. Patrick Rooney to Milton Friedman
Letters to the Editor
The view that we must have universal coverage in medical
care in a nonsocialist nation is fundamentally a logical fallacy
as well as bad government. The fallacy is what lawyers call
special pleading or the double standard. Ironically, the
President and First Lady are lawyers. Special pleading means
that one may not argue, for example, in favor of universal
coverage in medicine, while not also arguing for all human
activity or needs. To argue only for universal medical coverage
and not for socialism is contradictory. To argue for universal
food, clothing, shelter, and so forth, is explicit socialism.
Michael M. Kazanjian, MD, Chicago, IL
Medicare Carriers Violate Rules
Excerpted from a letter addressed to Mary Ann Hardy,
Executive Correspondent, Upstate Medicare, 7-9 Court St.,
Binghamton, NY 13901, dated Feb. 28, 1994.
Upstate Medicare has been (since 1991) and is still
violating section 7525 of the Medicare manual with impunity. (By
the way, I am provider number 51284B, not 51284A as you have
stated in your letter. If Medicare was truly a fair program, you
should have your paycheck denied for a week or two,
until you attached the right provider number to my letter....)
You state that ``upon reviewing the claim, the additional
information did not substantiate the need for the
service''....Simply put, that is a lie. The claim was submitted
electronically via modem, using Upstate Medicare's own
software....There was no ``additional information''
submitted with the claim. Your software doesn't permit
any additional information to be submitted with claims. The
carrier's response to that is ``well, if you had known [you
can't know because the screens are secret], you
could have submitted the claim on paper with additional
information.'' So, on the one hand you do everything possible to
``encourage'' electronic submission of claims, and on the other
hand, if we use your software, we are often doomed to failure....
I wrongfully assumed that [anyone]...would be able to figure
out that an internist and a neurologist would be supplying
different services to a patient with a life-threatening
neurological condition who was also on a ventilator. But again,
I suspect that not one person actually reviewed the
claim before it was automatically denied without first
requesting additional information. This by definition
violates section 7525 of the Medicare Carrier's manual....
Only a ``bad physician'' would supply ``medically
unnecessary services.'' [You gave the patient] this wrongful
impression, [and] you have made no attempt to dispel it when you
simply send her an EOMB with an adjustment.
Lawrence R. Huntoon, MD, Binghamton, NY
Managed Care Is a Special Interest
From a letter to Adrienne Radzwiller of Arizona's League of
Women Voters, concerning the funding source for a forum on health
care presented by her organization:
Although the Kaiser Family Foundation may legally
be a separate entity from the Kaiser-Permanente HMO network, this
is all one and the same ``family,'' with the same financial
interests and the same self-interested goals. It is ludicrous to
believe Kaiser is not a ``special interest group''-and one of the
most moneyed and most powerful. Kaiser (as well as other HMO
organizations) stands to gain enormous financial benefits if the
Clinton Plan or ``managed competition'' is enacted. If this
happens, experts agree that private medicine will die.
You may not realize that merely by picking the
questions on which these discussions are focusing (e.g.
the uninsured), Kaiser and the Harvard and Johns Hopkins Schools
of Public Health are definitely biasing the discussion by putting
a ``spin'' on the presentation.
Joseph Scherzer, MD, Scottsdale, AZ
June 18, Board of Directors meeting, Chicago, IL.
Oct. 12-15, 51st annual meeting, Atlanta, GA.
Stage four [the dominance of a few large HMOs, greater than
50% market penetration, and the solidification of provider-payer
alliances] ``constitutes the reduction of medicine to a commodity
in which groups of patients are bought and sold....This is
neither bad nor good, but different,'' stated John Sullivan, MD,
President and CEO of The University Physicians, University of
Arizona College of Medicine (The Sombrero, March, 1994).
AAPS welcomes Drs. Garrett D. Alcorn of Burien, WA; F.F.
Amanatulla of Reno, NV; John R. Anderson of Denton, TX; Thomas
Antalik of Roxboro, NC; John T. Armstrong, Jr. of Napa, CA; Tom
Arnold of Houston, TX; Alan H. Arrington of Huntsville, AL; David
M. Atwell of Maumee, OH; William Backlund of Redmond, WA; John
Peter Badalamenti of Kenosha, WI; Richard Balon of Troy, MI;
Walter Barquist of Portsmouth, NH; Barry F. Bates of Powell, OH;
Theodore J. Behe of Franklin Park, NJ; Deane S. Berson of Chipita
Park, CO; Sharon F. Billon of Arroyo Grande, CA; Alvin I. Bogart
of Phoenix, AZ; Arthur S. Booth, Jr. of Atlanta, GA; James C.
Boothe of McComb, MS; Stuart Boreen of Bethlehem, PA; Thomas A.
Borland of New Iberia, LA; Edwyn L. Boyd of Hoover, AL; David
Boyd of Oceanside, CA; Jack L. Brenner of Yorktown Heights, NY;
M. Truett Bridges, Jr. of Smyrna, GA; Gerald S. Brodie of Orange,
CA; Arthur S. Brown of Camden, NJ; Richard Brown of Tucson, AZ;
Anthony Bruzzese of Warwick, RI; Carlos F. Burroso of Atlanta,
GA; Alan Burwinkel of Fairfield, OH; David KA. Byrne of
Bloomington, IN; William G. Carey of Evansville, IN; P. Michael
Carney of Irvine, CA; Herman M. Carrion of Miami, FL; Anthony A.
Cassens of La Habra Heights, CA; Tullio Celano of Boise, ID;
Joanne M. Chao of San Jose, CA; Jay Chavda of Houston, TX; Vernon
D. Clausing of Seattle, WA; Kenneth H. Cohen of Portsmouth, NH;
Jesse A. Cole of James Island, SC; Collin E. Cooper of Glendale,
CA; Paul W.F. Coughlin of High Point, NC; Arthur J. Davidson of
Mequon, WI; James S. Davies of Birmingham, AL; W. G. Davis of
Frisco, TX; Ed Davis of Renton, WA; James Demmel of Snohomish,
WA; Ward S. DeWitt of Missoula, MT; Gregg Dickerson of Muncie,
IN; John I. Dickinson of Rome, GA; Thomas J. Dowling, Jr. of
Commach, NY; Ralph H. Duchett of High Point, NC; Dermot J. Durcan
of Houston, TX; Ray Dzelzkalns of Milwaukee, WI; Adel S. H.
El-Deiry of Peoria, IL; John H. Elinger of St. Petersburg, FL;
James A. Engblom of Oak Ridge, TN; John T. English of Lancaster,
PA; Robert L. Erdman of Nassawadox, VA; Dennis M. Everton of
Mesa, AZ; Kenneth A. Feucht of Puyallup, WA; Harold Fields of
Houston, TX; Stacey M. Fink of Lawrenceville, GA; Dan Fitzpatrick
of Warren, OH; David R. Fletcher of Philadelphia, PA; James
Furstoss of Puyallup, WA; Paul E. Garland of Tallahassee, FL;
William B. Garlow of Salina, KS; Helen Gelhuf of St. Louis, MO;
Harold R. Goldberg of Spokane, WA; Kristin Graham of Bellevue,
WA; Seldon B. Graham,III of Sherman, TX; David Gralnek of
Phoenix, AZ; Lee B. Grant of Ft. Collins, CO; Joseph Guarino of
Roanoke, VA; Vincent J. Gulfo of Warwick, NY; Peter W. Guresky of
Amarillo, TX; Robert W. Haerr of Terre Haute, IN; Glenn G.
Hakanson of Sacramento, CA; Cline A. Handy of Oceanside, CA;
Charles Hansing of Bellevue, WA; John W. Harlan of Spokane, WA;
Dennis Helmuth of Wooster, OH; Michael Henneberry of Spokane, WA;
Kathryn Henry of Tucson, AZ; George Morrison Henry of Little
Rock, AR; Patrick T. Hergenroeder of Chagrin Falls, OH; Mary Lee
Hess of Powell, OH; G. W. Hetherington of Houston, TX; Robert N.
Heyburn of Flossmoor, IL; Yvonne Hillier of Corpus Christi, TX;
Robert J. Hoehn of Denver, CO; John B. Holds of St. Louis, MO;
David E. Hoover of Indianapolis, IN; James R. House III of
Jackson, MS; Robert L. Howisey of Seattle, WA; Lawrence R.
Huntoon of Jamestown, NY; Bradley A. Jabour of Santa Monica, CA;
George Jackson of San Diego, CA; Daryl L. Jacobs of Belleville,
IL; Norman J. James of Spokane, WA; Robert H. Jarman of Savannah,
GA; William E. Johnson of Mobile, AL; L. M. Johnston of Seattle,
WA; Paul A. Jordan of Bossier City, LA; Aurel J. Kajlich of
Edmonds, WA; Jack Kartaginer of Clarkston, MI; Alan Kisner of
Huntington, NY; Robert Klein of Tempe, AZ; Jeffrey J. Klein of
Akron, OH; JoJo Korzep of Ashland, KY; Robin Kroll of Seattle,
WA; Ivan W. Kuhl of McAllen, TX; Patty Kulpa of Tacoma, WA;
Michael J. Lanoux of Dallas, TX; Jeffrey S. Lauber of Newport
Beach, CA; Vivian Lee of Hawthorne, NY; Keith Austin Lepok of
Baton Rouge, LA; Arthur F. Leritz of Spokane, WA; Kenneth J.
Lippman of Westport, CT; Robert P. Lonergan of Camp Hill, PA;
Alfred C. Lotman of Denver, CO; Joseph A. Maggioncalda of
Evansville, IN; Eugene A. H. Magnier of Aiea, Hawaii; Devra C.
Marcus of Washington, D.C.; R. E. Marks of Seattle, WA; Timothy
Marks of Amarillo, TX; Stephen P. Markus of Bellevue, WA; Arlene
R. Martone of Fort Morgan, CO; Catherine L. Matchett of
Grapevine, TX; Jerry L. Mathis of State College, PA; Leah S.
McCormack of Forest Hills, NY; John W. McKinney of St. Louis, MO;
Douglas E. McKinney of Bridgeport, WV; Peter J. Meier, Jr. of
Peru, IL; Joseph M. Mercola of Schaumburg, IL; John E. Merriman
of Tulsa, OK; Joseph Metcalf IV of Oak Ridge, TN; Charlotte
Metzler of Bremerton, WA; Steven L. Moore of Augusta, GA; Ronald
L. Moy of Los Angeles, CA; Timothy L. Mullins of High Point, NC;
Michael Nahrwold of Indianapolis, IN; Roberta Nataloni of Port
Jefferson, NY; Terri A. Norden of New York, NY; Mark Norling of
Portland, OR; Bruce W. Novark of Bellevue, WA; David Nunley of
Chico, CA; W.W. Ohm of Seattle, WA; Lexey Parker of Reno, NV;
Robert L. Parkman, Jr. of Magnolia, AR; Elliott O. Partridge of
Eldorado, IL; Christopher J Patitsas of Huntingdon, PA; Frederick
A. Pereira of Flushing, NY; Eliseo Perez of Ft. Lauderdale, FL;
Kenneth B. Peterson of Scottsdale, AZ; Luis Napoleon Pinzon of
Tampa, FL; Seymour C. Post of New York, NY; Frederick and David
Ray of Houma, LA; Susan L. Reimer of Bremerton, WA; Stephen L
Reisman of Nashville, TN; Laura M. Reuter of Indianapolis, IN;
Raymond G. Richardson of Riverside, CA; Charles Rimpila of
Wisconsin Rapids, WI; Angel M. Rios of El Paso, TX; Winthrop S.
Risk of Cedar Rapids, IA; George L. River of Dubuque, IA; Jerome
Rochlin of Phoenix, AZ; James N. Romanelli of Huntington, NY;
Wesley Root of Merced, CA; Richard L. Roseman of Havertown, PA;
Charles E. Rowe of High Point, NC; Jacob D. Rozbruch of New
York, NY; Frederick P. Russek, Jr. of Henderson, NV; Jeffrey
Sabloff of Washington, D.C.; Joseph A. Sangster of Soldotna, AK;
Maria Scouros of Houston, TX; David C. Shauf of Gainesville, TX;
William A. Shipley of Peoria, IL; John C. Sinclair of Delta, CO;
Peter D. Sliskovich of San Pedro, CA; Natalia G. Smith of
Billings, MT; A. James Sniderman of Dayton, OH; Timothy Sprague
of Santa Monica, CA; Monroe A. Sprague of Chico, CA; Richard
Steele of Carmel, IN; Terry Steinberg of Orange, CA; Randall A.
Stenoien of Houston, TX; Marsden Stewart of Gig Harbor, WA;
Robert F. Subers of Clovis, CA; Elliott Sumers of Upper Saddle
River, NJ; Lourell E. Sutliff of San Angelo, TX; Michael Swistak
of Issaquah, WA; Mark D. Tasch of Zionville, IN; Morris L. Tate
Jr. of Knoxville, TN; Edward R. Teitez of Ozark, AK; Douglas K.
Tennison of Silsbee, TX; Richard Thaller of Houston, TX; Paul B.
Thompson of Sequim, WA; Luiz Toledo of Fort Worth, TX; A. Gregory
Tuegel of Abilene, TX; Thelma Villoso of Valparaiso, IN; Rolf F.
Vrla of Glendale, AZ; Dennis M. Walker of Lake Charles, LA; James
Q. Whitaker of Warner Robins, GA; William White III of
Louisville, KY; Victor T. Williams of Las Vegas, NV; I. F. Wood,
Jr. of Myrtle Beach, SC; Robert C. Wright of Puyallup, WA; George
Wyhinny of Park Ridge, IL; Gerald N. Yorioka of Mill Creek, WA;
Thomas J. Young of St. Joseph, MO; Howard S. Yudin of Rye Brook,
NY; and Stuart Zykorie of Houston, TX.
New student members are: Thomas F. Collier of Miami Beach,
FL; Floyd Forbes of Huntington Bay, NY; David Hartsuch of
Bloomington, MN; Michael Sher of Valhalla, NY; Jeremy Smith of
Chicago, IL; Viola Wiegand of Brooklyn, NY; and Lauren Zoltick of
New associate members are: Bill Baker of Washington, D.C.;
David A. Dorn of Scottsdale, AZ; Ryan Elliott of Winfield, IL; W.
Joseph Gelling of Wausau, WI; Norm Robins of Walnut Creek, CA;
Stanford Rosen of Tuscaloosa, AL; Rudolph B. Skogerboe of Grand
Forks, MD; and Ralph Teall of Sacramento, CA.